In this article we will cover procedures of risk assessment, definitions, responsibilities.
Risk Assessment is the process of evaluating the risk, taking into account the adequacy of any existing controls, and deciding whether or not the risk is acceptable.
Risk that has been reduce to a level that can be tolerate by the organization having regard to its legal obligations and its HSE policy.
As Low As Reasonably Practicable
To reduce a risk to a level, which is “as low as reasonably practicable” involves balancing reduction in risk against the time trouble, difficulty and cost of achieving it. ALARP represent the point, objectively assessed at which the time, trouble, difficulty and cost of further reduction measures becomes unreasonably disproportionate to the additional risk reduction achieved.
A measure of the rate of occurrence of an event expressed as the number of occurrences of an event in a given time.
Source, or situation with a potential, for harm in terms of a human injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to the environment, or a combination of these.
The Process of recognizing that hazards exist and defining their characteristics.
HSE Critical Task:
A task with potential to cause major injury or health effects to people, local damage to assets, localized effects to the environment or considerable impact on reputation.
Used as qualitative description of probability or frequency.
The combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event or exposure and the severity of injury or ill health that may be caused by the event or exposure.
2.1 Site Manager:
The Site Manager shall be overall responsible for the implementation of risk assessment for the project and shall:
- Receive and review the “Risk Assessment Report and Control Measures” prepared by the site construction team.
- Periodically examine the effectiveness of the project’s risk assessment process/method and control measures through internal HSE audits.
- Report critical safety issues to management and seek management commitment to a safe work environment.
2.2 Construction Manager / Section Manager:
- Identify Hazards related to the site operations, and approve the risk assessment and control measures.
- Periodically review the effectiveness of the risk assessment report.
- Request information from the HSE Department when necessary to assist him in evaluating compliance with safe working practices.
- To ensure that the requirements of this procedure is made known to and understood by Subcontractors before the start of work.
- Review and comment on all method statements and risk assessments applied to all tasks and activities.
2.3 Site HSE Manager:
- Review the appropriateness of the control measures for hazards and hazardous effects identified in the Job Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment submitted by subcontractors
- Build a project database with the “Risk Assessment Report and Control Measures” received from the site.
- Monitor the effectiveness of control measures.
- Maintain the approved ‘Risk Assessment Reports within the HSE Department
- consult the employees or their representatives about the organization of the risk assessment, and the persons carrying out the assessment and implementing the preventive measures.
- Shall be suitably qualified and fully understand the Contractor’s Risk Management guidelines.
- Shall be responsible for performing HSE Risk Assessment for their activities in line with the requirements of this procedure, thereby ensuring that the HSE risk associates with those activities are manageable to an acceptable or ALARP level.
3. RISK ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES
3.1 Risk Assessment Overview in mega project:
When to Perform Risk Assessment:
- Risk Assessment must be carried out and associated hazards identified and control measure put in place for all activities before the beginning of the work at site.
When to Update Risk Assessment:
- A key construction method or process changes according to the change of design.
- New equipment, substances and procedures are used.
- After an accident or a case of ill health happened.
- Unexpected key material or equipment is used.
- Related laws are changed or the requirements of interested parties are changed (including public complaints)
- Special cases such as suspension of the project.
- Company policy is changed.
- A new subcontractor parties in the work process.
3.2 Determination of Consequences and Likelihood:
The magnitude of the consequences of an event, should it occur, and the likelihood of the event and its associated consequences shall be assessed in the context of the effectiveness of the existing strategies and controls.
Consequences and likelihood shall be estimated using statistical analysis and calculations, if possible. Where no reliable or relevant past data is available, subjective estimates may be made which reflect and individual’s or group’s degree of belief that a particular event or outcome will occur.
The most pertinent information sources and techniques shall be used when analyzing consequences and likelihood. Sources of information may include the following:
- Past records
- Practice and relevant experience
- Economic, engineering or other models
- Specialist and expert judgments.
- Structured interviews with experts in the area of interest
- Use of multi-disciplinary groups of experts;
- Individual evaluations using questionnaires.
3.2 Analysis of Risks
3.2.1 Guidelines for assessing Severity
- Major: Environmental Loss (Major pollution effecting life outside site)
People (Fatality or Permanent disability.)
- Serious: Environmental Loss (Major pollution confined to inside site)
People (Long term absence / Offsite treatment)
- Moderate: Environmental Loss (Significant pollution causing shutdown of unit/s)
People (Moderate treatment / Shot term absence)
- Minor: Environmental Loss (Pollution above limits / Small spills, emissions)
People (First aid case / No significant injury)
3.2.2 Guidelines for assessing Likelihood
- Very unlikely : Little or no chance of occurrence
- Unlikely : Could occur, less than 50 / 50 chance
- Possible : 50 / 50 chance
- Probable : More likely to occur than not more than 50 / 50 chance
3.3 Evaluation of Risks
- Risk evaluation involves comparing the level of risk found during the analysis process with risk criteria established when the context was considered. The objectives of the nominated entity and the extent of opportunity that could result shall be considered.
- Decisions shall take account of the wider context of the risk and include
- Consideration of the tolerability of the risks borne by parties other than the entity that benefit from it, for example the community.
- Four risk categories are to be used: Extreme, High, Moderate, and Low.
3.4 Performance of Control Measures
The control measures shall be immediately implemented once they are determined. safety management activities shall be carried out to remove hazards or reduce risks.
After Risk Assessment the appropriateness of the new control measures to reduce and removed unacceptable hazards shall be assessed again.
The appropriateness of the control measures shall be reviewed through Risk Assessment when re-assessment is required before or after the inspection of performance of the control measures determined by the Meeting, or before the corrective and preventive actions for accidents (including forecasted accidents) are carried out.
3.5 Monitoring and Review
The monitoring cycle for performance and results of control measures shall be determined according to the severity of hazards. The corrective actions shall be prioritized.
Monitoring must be carried out for each work process (e.g., Inspection Report, HSE Committee meeting records).
If the hazards are not properly managed in the site, corrective and complementary measures must be applied immediately.
Overall management of hazards shall be examined during the Risk Assessment and HSE Meeting.
When problems relating to hazard control status or new hazards are discovered during monitoring, a Risk Assessment must be conducted.